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P Gilbert BSc(Newcastle upon Tyne) PhD(CNAA)
Tel: +44 (0)161 275 2361
FAX: +44 (0)161 275 2396
E-mail: PGilbert@fs1.pa.man.ac.uk

Research:
Microbial biofilms
Antibiotic and antimicrobial development
Infections of medical protheses
Vaccine development.

Teaching

Since 1978 he has led  research group with interests in Antimicrobial Action and Design, Microbial Resistance Mechanism, and Microbial Physiology. Laterly this work has particularly concerned attachment of microorganisms to surfaces, biofilm formation and strategies for the control of biofilms in medicine and the environment.

Qualifications

The Medical School, University of Newcastle upon Tyne (1969-1972, BSc. Bacteriology)

The School of Pharmacy, Sunderland (PhD, 1975)

Post-doctoral period with Prof M.R.W. Brown, University of Aston, Birmingham (1975-78)

Soceity Membership

Editorial Boards of Journal of Applied Microbiology, Letters in Applied Microbiology, Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, Biofouling, European Journal of Parenteral Sciences and Pharmaceutical Sciences.

Treasurer of the Biofilm Club, an international organisation of scientists concerned with the physiology and control of microbial biofilms.

                 

Brief Career Details

Post-doctoral period with Prof M.R.W.Brown at the University of Aston, Birmingham (1975-78) Lecturer (1978) and later Senior Lecturer (1988) in the School of Pharmacy, University of Manchester.

Edited four research texts concerned with biofilms and microbiological quality assurance. Published over 150 research papers in international journals.    Consultant to the pharmaceuticals and chemicals industries in the area of Quality Assurance, Antimicrobial Action and Microbial Biofilm.

Research Programmes

1993 - 1997 Paula EGINTON. 'Hygienic Cleansing of Surfaces in the Food Industry'.

1994 - 1997 Paul WOOD  'Evaluation of synergistic combinations directed against bacterial biofilms'

1994 - 1998 Suhair SALEH 'Sequestration of planktonic bacteria to mature biofilms cultured under various physico-chemical and nutrient conditions'.

1995 - 1998 Louise WILLCOCK 'Sequestration and dispersal of food poisoning bacteria by bacterial biofilms present within food manufacturing environments'.

1995 - 1998 Sarah HEYS.Role of cell-cell signalling between Burkholdaria cepacia and Pseudomonas aeruginosa in the formation of microbial biofilms.

1995 - date T. MAIRA. 'Regulation of antibiotic resistance in Escherichia coli biofilms mediated through the global regulatory operon Mar A'.

1996 - date A. SUZANGER. Modification of substratum properties as a route to the control of bacterial biofilm formation.

1997 - date Amal G. AL-BAKRI Development of tolerance towards antibiotics in microbial biofilms.

1997 - date Harriet MACLEHOSE Tolerance development towards biocide combinations in sub-lethally treated biofilm communities.

1997 - date G. O'MAY  Biofilm formation and physiology at oil:water interfaces.

1997 - date K.S. McKEEGAN Physiology of fungal biofilms.

1998 - date  S.SCHOOLING "BIofilm Dispersal and Cell-Cell Interactions"

1998 - date J. COULBURN " Control of Biofilms in Paper Manufacturing"

Recent Publications

GILBERT, P. & BROWN, M.R.W. 1995 Phenotypic Plasticity and Mechanisms of Protection of Bacterial Biofilms from Antimicrobial Agents. pp 118-132, In, 'Microbial Biofilms' (Lappin-Scott, H.E. & Costerton, J.W. Eds.). Cambridge University Press.

BROWN, M.R.W. & GILBERT, P. (Editors) 1995 Microbial Quality Assurance: a guide to relevance and reproducibility of inocula. 320pages, CRC Press, Boca Raton, USA.

BROWN, M.R.W. and P. GILBERT 1995 Influence of the environment on the properties of vegetative microorganisms: An Overview. pp 1-12, In, Microbial Quality Assurance: a guide to relevance and reproducibility of inocula. (Brown, M.R.W. & P. Gilbert Eds.), CRC Press, Boca Raton, USA.

BROWN, M.R.W., P.J. COLLIER, R. COURCOL and P. GILBERT 1995 Definition of Phenotype in Batch Culture. pp 13-22, In, Microbial Quality Assurance: a guide to relevance and reproducibility of inocula. (Brown, M.R.W. & P. Gilbert Eds.), CRC Press, Boca Raton, USA.

GILBERT, P and M.R.W. BROWN 1995 Continuous culture of microorganisms in liquid media: Effects of growth rate and nutrient limitation. pp 33-50, In, Microbial Quality Assurance: a guide to relevance and reproducibility of inocula. (Brown, M.R.W. & P. Gilbert Eds.), CRC Press, Boca Raton, USA.

GILBERT, P., M.R.W. BROWN, I.S. AL-ADHAM and N. HODGES 1995 The influence of nutrient environment during vegatative growth on the properties of bacterial endospores. pp 51-62, In, Microbial Quality Assurance: a guide to relevance and reproducibility of inocula. (Brown, M.R.W. & P. Gilbert Eds.), CRC Press, Boca Raton, USA.

GILBERT, P., A.E. HODGSON and M.R.W. BROWN 1995 Influence of the environment on the properties of microorganisms grown in association with surfaces. pp 63-86, In, Microbial Quality Assurance: a guide to relevance and reproducibility of inocula. (Brown, M.R.W. & P. Gilbert Eds.), CRC Press, Boca Raton, USA.

BROWN, M.R.W., S.F. BLOOMFIELD and P. GILBERT 1995 Sources of biological variation and lack of inoculum reproducibility: a summary. pp 87-89, In, Microbial Quality Assurance: a guide to relevance and reproducibility of inocula. (Brown, M.R.W. & P. Gilbert Eds.), CRC Press, Boca Raton, USA.

GILBERT, P., P.J. COLLIER, J. ANDREWS and M. R.W. BROWN 1995 Influence of post-growth procedures on the properties of microorganisms. pp 125-136, In, Microbial Quality Assurance: a guide to relevance and reproducibility of inocula. (Brown, M.R.W. & P. Gilbert Eds.), CRC Press, Boca Raton, USA.

GILBERT, P. and M.R.W. BROWN 1995 Factors affecting the reproducibility and predictivity of performance tests. pp 139-152, In, Microbial Quality Assurance: a guide to relevance and reproducibility of inocula. (Brown, M.R.W. & P. Gilbert Eds.), CRC Press, Boca Raton, USA.

GILBERT, P. and M.R.W. BROWN 1995 Screening for novel antimicrobial activity/compounds in the pharmaceutical industry. pp 253-267, In, Microbial Quality Assurance: a guide to relevance and reproducibility of inocula. (Brown, M.R.W. & P. Gilbert Eds.), CRC Press, Boca Raton, USA.

Robinson, B. and GILBERT, P. (1995) Some moot aspects of the plague of Eyam. Scathin Books, Matlock, Derbyshire.

GILBERT, P. (1995) The value of in-vitro models of biofilms. pp13-16, In, 'Life and Death in Microbial Biofllm' (Eds., J.W. Wimpenny, P.S. Handley, P. Gilbert & H. Lappin-Scott), Bioline Press, Cardiff.

EGINTON, P., HANDLEY, P.S., SPENCELEY, H., HOLAH, J. and GILBERT P. (1995) Strength of adhesion of bacteria to surfaces in biofllms. pp61-64, In, 'Life and Death in Microbial Biofilms' (Eds., J.W.Wimpenny, P.S. Handley, P. Gilbert & H. Lappin-ScotI), Bioline Press, Cardiff.

WIMPENNY, J.W.T., HANDLEY, P.S., GILBERT, P. and LAPPIN-SCOTT, H.M. (1995) (Editors), Life and death in Microbial Biofilms, 181 pages, Bioline Press, Cardiff, UK.

HODGSON, A.E., NELSON, S.M., BROWN, M.R.W. and GILBERT, P. 1995 A simple in-vitro model for the controlled growth of bacterial biofilms. Journal of Applied Bacteriology, 79: 87-93

P. EGINTON, H. GIBSON, J. HOLAH, P.S. HANDLEY and P. GILBERT, 1995 Effect of substratum hydrophobicity on the strength of attachment of bacteria to surfaces. Colloids and Surfaces, B: Biointerfaces 5: 153-159

P. EGINTON, H. GIBSON, J. HOLAH, P.S. HANDLEY and P. GILBERT, 1995 Quantitation of the strength of attachment of bacteria to surfaces. Journal of Industrial Microbiology, 15:305-310

ALLISON, D.G. and P. GILBERT 1995 Modification by surface association of antimicrobial susceptibility of bacterial populations. Journal of Industrial Microbiology, 15: 311-317

GILBERT, P. and BROWN, M.R.W., 1995 Some perspectives on preservation and disinfection in the present day. International Journal of Biodeterioation and Biodegradation, 36: 219-226

BLOOMFIELD, S.F., ARTHUR, M., GIBSON, H., MORLEY, K., and GILBERT P. 1995 Development of reproducible inocula for disinfectant testing. International Journal of Biodeterioration and Biodegradation, 36: 311-331

GILBERT, P. and M. Jones (1996) Articles, compositions and process for cleaning surfaces by using a catalyst at the surface. UK substantive patent filed on 8th February 1996 (C3597); International (PCT) Patent PCT/EP/96/00443 (31st January 1996); India Patent 85/BOM/96 (8th Feb 1996); South Africa Patent 96/0736 (31st January 1996); Thailand Patent 29948/.96 (6th Feb 1996)

GILBERT, P. and ALLISON, D.G. (1996) Redefining sterility within sterile products. European Journal of Parenteral Sciences, 1: 19-23

DEKHANE, M., DOUGLAS, K.T. and GILBERT, P. (1996) A novel convenient route to the natural 3-oxoacyl-L-homoserinelactones and related bacterial autoinducers. Tetrahedron Letters 37: 1883-1884

GIILBERT, P. & DAS, J. (1996) Microbial Resistance to Preservative Systems. pp149-173, IN, "Microbial Quality Assurance in Cosmetics, Toiletries and Non-sterile Pharmaceuticals" (2nd Edition, S.F. Bloomfield, R. Baird eds.), Taylor Francis, London.

GILBERT, P. and ALLISON, D.G. (1996) What's in Sterility. European Journal of Parenteral Sciences, 1: 59 - 60

GILBERT, P. and FOLEY, I. (1996) Patent Application 9608869.5: British Patent Office, 30th April 1996; Antibiotic formulations: vancomycin / teichoplanin.

GILBERT, P., Eginton, P. and Wood, P. (1996) Hygienic Cleansing of biofilms, pp 251-268, In, 'Food Safety '96'. Aseptic Processing Association, Laval France.

WOOD, P., M. JONES, M. BHAKOO and P. GILBERT (1996) A novel strategy for control of microbial biofilms through generation of biocide at the Biofilm-surface interface. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 62: 2598-2602

FOLEY, I. and P. GILBERT (1996) Antibiotic resistance of biofilms. Biofouling 10: (4) 331-346

GILBERT, P., DAS, J. and FOLEY, I. (1997) Biofilm susceptibility to antimicrobials. Advances in Dental Research, 11: 160-167

GANDER, S. and GILBERT, P. (1997) Development of a small-scale biofilm model suitable for studying the effects of antibiotics on Gram-negative biofilms. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 40, 329-335

Wimpenny, J., Handley, P.S., Gilbert, P., Lappin-Scott, H. and Jones, M.(Editors) (1997) Biofilms: community interactions and control', Bioline Press, Cardiff. 310 pages.

Wood, P., Jones, M., Korber, D., Wolfaardt, G. and Gilbert, P. (1997) Surface catalysed hygiene. pp227-234, In, Biofilms: community interactions and control' (Wimpenny, J., Handley, P.S., Gilbert, P., Lappin-Scott, H. and Jones, M., Editors), Bioline Press, Cardiff.

Allison, D.G., Heys, S. and Gilbert, P. (1997) Homoserine lactones and bacterial biofilms. pp103-112, In, ' Biofilms: community interactions and control' (Wimpenny, J., Handley, P.S., Jones, M., Lappin-Scott, H. and Gilbert, P. Editors), Bioline Press, Cardiff.

Gilbert, P., Allison, D.G., Jacob, A.E., Korber, D., Wolfaardt, G. and Foley, I. (1997) Immigration of planktonic Enterococcus faecalis cells into mature E. faecalis biofilms. pp133-142, In,' Biofilms: community interactions and control'. (Wimpenny, J., Handley, P.S., Gilbert, P., Lappin-Scott, H. and Jones, M., Editors), Bioline Press, Cardiff.

Willcock, L., Holah, J., Allison, D.G. and Gilbert, P. (1997) Population dynamics in steady-state biofilms: effects of growth environment upon dispersal. pp23-32, In, 'Biofilms: community interactions and control' (Wimpenny, J., Handley, P.S., Gilbert, P., Lappin-Scott, H. and Jones, M., Editors), Bioline Press, Cardiff.

FOLEY, I. & GILBERT, P. (1997) In-vitro studies of glycopeptide combinations towards Enterococcus faecalis biofilms. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 40, 667-672

GILBERT, P. (1998) Principles of microbial pathogenicity and epidemiology. pp 75-88, In, Pharmaceutical Microbiology (Hugo, W.B. & Russell, A.D. eds), 6th edition, Blackwell Scientific Press, London

GILBERT, P. and ALLISON, D.G. (1998) Vaccination and Immunisation pp 321-336, In, Pharmaceutical Microbiology (Hugo, W.B. & Russell, A.D. eds), 6th edition, Blackwell Scientific Press, London.

DAS, J., M. JONES, M. BHAKOO, and P. GILBERT (1998) Rapid changes in biocide susceptibility of Staphylococcus epidermidis and Escherichia coli associated with attachment to surfaces and biofilm formation. Journal of Applied Microbiology, 84:852-859

WOOD, P., CALDWELL, D.E., EVANS, E., JONES, M., KORBER, D.R., WOLFHAARDT, G., WILSON, M. and P. GILBERT (1998) Surface catalysed hygiene of thick Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms. Journal of Applied Microbiology, 84:1092-1099

Gilbert, P. and Brown, M.R.W. (1998). Biofilms and þ-lactam activity. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, 14: 571-572

Gilbert P., Jones, M.V., Allison, D.G., Heys, S.Maira, T. and Wood, P. (1998) The use of poloxamer hydrogels for the assessment of biofilm susceptibility towards biocide treatments.  Journal of Applied Microbiology. In Press

Wirtanen, G., Salu., S.,Matilla-Sandholm, T., Allison, D.G. and Gilbert, P. (1998) Performance evaluation of disinfectant formulations using poloxamer-hydrogel biofilm-constructs.  Journal of Applied Microbiology. In Press

Eginton, P.J.Holah, J.Allison, D.G.Handley, P.S. and Gilbert, P. (1998).  Post-treatment cleansing of disinfected surfaces, Letters in Applied Microbiology, 27:101-106

Montgomery, H., S Gaskell. J. Andrews, A.E. Hodgson and P.Gilbert, (1998) Staphylococcal alkaline shock protein (ASP23) is expressed at netural pH in Staphylococcus aureus biofilms in Microbiology

P.Harkonen, S Salo, T Mattila-Sandholm, G.Wirtanen, D.G.Allison and P.Gilbert.(1998)Development of a simple in-vitro test system for the disinfection of bacterial biofilm.  Water Research and Technology, In Press

Allison, D.G., Ruiz, B, SanJose, C., Jaspe A. and Gilbert, P. (1998) Extracellular Products as Mediators of the formation and detachment of Pseudomonas flourescens biofilms.  FEMS Mirobiology Letters, In Press

1995-1997 Meetings Abstracts

GILBERT, P. (1995) The value of in-vitro models of biofllms, at, British Biofllm Club Meeting, March 1995, Life and Death in Biofllms, Gregynog, Wales.

EGINTON, P., GILBERT, P. and HANDLEY, P.S. (1995) Quantification of the Strength of attachment of bacteria to surfaces, At, British Biofllm Club Meeting, March 1995, Life and Death in Biofilms, Gregynog, Wales.

GILBERT, P. (1995) Some perspectives on preservation and disinfection in the present day. at, 'Society for Applied Bacteriology and Biodeterioration Society Joint Meeting, 'Disinfection, Sterilisation and Preservation: Problems and Practices', Reading 23rd-24th March 1995.

DAS, J., JONES, M., BHAKOO, M. and GILBERT, P. (1995) An automated method for the assessment of biofllm formation and antimicrobial screening. Abstracts of the 95th Annual Meeting of the American Society for Microbiology, Washington, May 21st -25th. (Q-345)

EGINTON, P., HOLAH, J., GIBSON, H., HANDLEY, P.S. and GILBERT, P. (1995) Quantification of the Strength of aftachment of bacteria to surfaces, Abstracts of the 95th Annual Meeting of the American Society for Microbiology, Washington, May 21st -25th. (Q-346)

HODGSON, A.E. and GILBERT, P. (1995) Susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus biofilms to imipenem, teichoplanin, gentamycin, vancomycin and ciprofloxacin at use concentrations. Society for General Microbiology, General Meeting, 'Antibiotics' Bath, April 1995.

GANDER, S. and GILBERT, P. (1995) A comparison of the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profiles for antibiotics used against biofllms of Escherichia coli. Society for General Microbiology, General Meeting, 'Antibiotics', Bath, April 1995.

DAS, J., JONES, M., BHAKOO, M. and GILBERT, P. (1995) An automated method for the assessment of biofilm formation and antimicrobial screening. Society for General Microbiology, General Meeting, 'Antibiotics', Bath, April 1995

GILBERT, P. (1995) Resistance mechanisms associated with the growth of microorganisms on surfaces. At, Society for General Microbiology Meeting, Cell Adherence, September 11th-12th1995

GILBERT, P. (1996) Biofilm susceptibility to antimicrobials. International Conference on Oral Biology meeting, March 18-20th 1996, 'Biofilms on Oral Surfaces: Implication for Health and Disease', Monterey, CA

GILBERT, P. (1996) Hygienic Cleansing of Microbial Biofilms. Proceedings of the 4th Conference Internationale ASEPT, 'Food Safety', 4-6th June 1996, Laval, France

Eginton, P., Gibson, H., Holah, J., Handley, P.S. and GILBERT, P. (1996) Influence of biocide treatment on the strength of attachment of bacteria to surfaces. Proceedings of the 4th Conference Internationale ASEPT, 'Food Safety', 4-6th pp375-6, June 1996, Laval, France

Wood, P., Bhakoo, M., Jones, M., and GILBERT, P. (1996) Generation of biocide at surfaces: a novel strategy towards the control of microbial biofilm. Abstracts of the 96th Annual General Meeting of the American Society for Microbiology, 19-23rd May, New Orleans, p.427, Q240.

Foley, I., Jacob, A. and GILBERT, P. (1996) Altruistic behaviour of biofims towards sequestered planktonic cells. Abstracts of the 96th Annual General Meeting of the American Society for Microbiology, 19-23rd May, New Orleans, p.429, Q252..

Foley, I. and GILBERT, P. (1996) Susceptibility of Enterococcus faecalis biofilms to combinations of glycopeptide antibiotics and protamine. Abstracts of the 96th Annual General Meeting of the American Society for Microbiology, 19-23rd May, New Orleans, p.137, A21..

Foley, I. and GILBERT, P. (1996) Altruistic behaviour of biofilm bacteria towards sequestered planktonic cells. International Biofilm Symposium, March 27-29th, Canmore, Alberta, Canada

Foley, I., Jacob, A.E. and GILBERT, P. (1996) Plasmid exchange and dissemination within Enterococcus faecalis biofilmsand the sequestration of plasmid bearing strains. Journal of Applied Bacteriology, Suppl. July 1996

GILBERT, P. (1996) Altered physiology as a mechanism of biofilm resistance, At ASM Conference on Microbial Biofilms, 28th Sept - 4th October 1996, Snowbird, Utah, US.

GILBERT, P. (1996) Biofilms: why they are resistant to antimicrobial treatments. At, International Clinical Symposium, '20 Years in Periodontal Local Drug Delivery. Current Status and Future Prospects'. London Dec 1996.

Eginton, P.J., Willcock, L., Gibson, H., Holah, J. and GILBERT, P. (1996) Disinfection and Hygienic cleansing of glass and stainless steel surfaces colonised by Staphylococcus epidermidis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Proceedings of the American Society for Microbiology Symposium, 'Microbial Biofilms', Snowbird, Utah, 28th Sept-4th Oct 1996

Wood, P., Jones, M., Bhakoo, M. and GILBERT, P. (1996) Catalytic generation of biocide at liquid:substratum interfaces as a means of controlling biofilm development. Proceedings of the American Society for Microbiology Symposium, 'Microbial Biofilms', Snowbird, Utah, 28th Sept-4th Oct 1996

Foley, I., Jacob, A.E., Nelson, S., Maira, T. and GILBERT, P. (1996) Altruistic behavious of Enterococcus faecalis biofilms towards sequestered planktonic cells. Proceedings of the American Society for Microbiology Symposium, 'Microbial Biofilms', Snowbird, Utah, 28th Sept-4th Oct 1996

Das, J.R., Jones, M., Bhakoo, M. and GILBERT, P. (1996) Changes in biocide susceptibility of bacteria following attachment to surfcaes. Proceedings of the American Society for Microbiology Symposium, 'Microbial Biofilms', Snowbird, Utah, 28th Sept-4th Oct 1996

Nelson, S,M., Dehkane, M., Lambert, P.A., Douglas, K.T. and GILBERT, P. (1996) Development of rabbit anti-homoserine lactones (HSL) and HSL-peroxidase conjugates as probes of possible biofilm regulation. Proceedings of the American Society for Microbiology Symposium, 'Microbial Biofilms' Snowbird, Utah, 28th Sept-4th Oct 1996.

Saleh, S., Al-Adham, I.S.I., Allison, D.G. and P. GILBERT (1997) Interrelation of growth rate, carbon:nitrogen ratio and time on the attachment of Escherichia coli to surfaces. Abstracts of the 97th Annual General Meeting of the American Society for Microbiology, 4-8th May, Miami Beach, Fl.

Nelson, S.M., Heys, S., Lambert, P.A., Allison, D.G. and P. GILBERT (1997) Anti-homoserine lactones and protein homoserine-lactone conjugates as probes of possible biofilm regulation. Abstracts of the 97th Annual General Meeting of the American Society for Microbiology, 4-8th May, Miami Beach, Fl.

Ruiz, B., SanJose, C., Jaspe, A., Allison, D.G. and P. GILBERT (1997) Formation and diispersal of Pseudomonas fluorescens biofilms at Solid{Air interfaces. Abstracts of the 97th Annual General Meeting of the American Society for Microbiology, 4-8th May, Miami Beach, Fl.

Gilbert, P. and Wood, P. (1997) Surface catalysed disinfection of surfaces. Proceedings of the Society for Industrial Microbiology Annual Meeting, Reno, Nevada, August 3-7th 1997

Gilbert, P. (1997) Attachment and biofilm formation: Critical events in microbial pathogenesis: Keynote address to British Pharmaceutical Conference. Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology (suppl) 49: 5

Heys, S., Mullen, R., Allison, D.G. & Gilbert, P. (1997) Homoserine lactones and bacterial biofilms. Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology (suppl) 49: 6

Gilbert, P., Wood, P., Allison, D.G., Mattila-Sandholm, T., Salo, S. and Wirtanen, G. (1998) Development of a simple in-vitro test system for the disinfection of bacterial biofilms. IAWQ conference, 'Microbial Ecology of biofilms: Concepts, tools and applications. Lake Bluff Illinois, 8-10th October 1998.

Wirtanen, G, Suzanger, S.A., Allison, D.G. & Gilbert, P. (1998) Performance evaluation of disinfectant formulations using poloxamer-hydrogel biofilm constructs. Abstracts of the 98th Annual General Meeting of the American Society for Microbiology, Atlanta, Geogia, May 23-27th 1998.

Maira, T., Levy, S.B., Allison, D.G. & Gilbert, P. (1998) Influence of growth environment and biofilm formation on the expression of Mar in Escherichia coli biofilms. Abstracts of the 98th Annual General Meeting of the American Society for Microbiology, Atlanta, Geogia, May 23-27th 1998.

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